Ayurvedic System of medicine is based on concepts such as Rasa, Guna, Virya, Vipaka & Karma developed by famous acharyas like Charaka, Susruta, Vagbhada etc. The treatments in Ayurveda is not removal of symptoms or removal of causes but it is the restoration of the natural state of Doshas, which is termed as 'Prakritisthapana' (restoration of equilibrium of 'doshas', 'dhatus' & 'malas' and 'mental disposition'). An expert Ayurvedic doctor (vaidya) prescribes medicines not because of its curative property alone, but because of its efficacy in restoring the health by bringing the vitiated 'Doshas' to normal equipoise.
Air & ether
"Vaa gathi gandhanayoho ethi vaayu:"
The above Sloga explains Vata as :
Njanam(sencing power), gamanam(all movements), prapthi(acheiving something) etc. are done as a result of Vata.
This is the only dosha which can move by itself and make other doshas moving. It is considered as king among doshas. All the activities or movements like circulation, heart beating, elimination, binking of eyes etc. can be done because of Vata. Balancing and imbalancing of this dosha will be quicker while comparing with other doshas. It is seen that a person with vata prakriti have a dry and rough skin, will be lightly built, will be quick in their mental process and initiation of action.
fire & water
"Thapa santhape pitham"
'Thapa' means heat. Pitta manages all heat, metabolism and transformation in the mind and body. Digestion, metabolism & transformation in body etc. are done as a result of Pitta. It is seen that pitta prakriti individuals tend to sweat a lot and tend to have a higher than normal body temperature.
water & Earth
"Kena jalena bhalathi ithi kapham, shlish alinghane"
Kapham consists of water and earth. Kapha is unctuous, smooth, soft, sweet in taste, stable, dense, slow, rigid, cold and clear. Kapham manages the immune system. It is seen that the Kapha prakriti individuals tend to have soft limbs, slow gait and are slow to understand. The cold quality means that their agni or digestive power is low.